Vsevolod Pudovkin was a Russian filmmaker who developed many modern influential theories of montage. This visual analysis produced by director Evan Richards examines of the 5 relational editing techniques of Pudovkin.   at “We do all things cinematic”, in referencing this video, defines these techniques below:

  1. Contrast: Contrast forces the viewer to compare two opposing scenes in their mind.
  2. Parallelism: Parallelism is often used to jump from one time period or a location to another.
  3. Symbolism: Visual or auditory representation of another object. The use of one object or action (a symbol) to represent or suggest something else.
  4. Simultaneity: Action occurring at the same time in two different locations, the camera will cut away from one action to another action, which can suggest the simultaneity of these two actions but this is not always the case.
  5. Leitmotif: Repetition. Visual Leitmotif’s (leading motifs or guiding motifs) is a theme, or other coherent idea, repeated to associate with a particular idea, person or situation. It is a technique that accompanies the reappearance of a person, object or situation. Clearly defined so as to retain its identity if modified on subsequent appearances, and whose purpose is to represent or symbolize a person, object, place, idea, and state of mind, supernatural force or any other ingredient in a dramatic work.

If you would like to study Pudovkin a bit more in-depth, check out this 1954 book: “Film technique and Film acting: The Cinema Writings of V.I. Pudovkin” originally published in 1954, now free to read and download here.

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